SPRI Updates and Improves Roof Edge Standards

Low-slope metal perimeter edge details, including fascia, coping and gutters, are critical systems that can strongly impact the long-term performance of single-ply roofs. Photo: Johns Manville

The effect of high winds on roofs is a complex phenomenon, and inadequate wind uplift design is a common factor in roofing failures. Damage from wind events has historically been dramatic, and wind-induced roof failure is one of the major contributors to insurance claims.

Roofing professionals have long recognized the importance of proper low-slope roof edge and gutter designs, particularly in high-wind conditions. For this reason, SPRI, the association representing sheet membrane and component suppliers to the commercial roofing industry, has spent more than a decade enhancing testing and design standards for these roofing details.

SPRI introduced the first version of its landmark standard, ANSI/SPRI/ES-1 “Wind Design Standard for Edge Systems Used with Low Slope Roofing Systems” in 1998. Since then, the association has continually revised, re-designated and re-approved the document as an ANSI (American National Standards Institute) standard.

Testing of edge securement per ANSI/SPRI ES-1 is required per the International Building Code (IBC), which has been adopted by every state in the country.

This standard provides the basic requirements for wind-load resistance design and testing for roof-edge securement, perimeter edge systems, and nailers. It also provides minimum edge system material thicknesses that lead to satisfactory flatness, and designs to minimize corrosion.

Construction professionals have been successfully using the standard, along with the specifications and requirements of roofing membrane and edge system manufacturers to strengthen their wind designs.

Until recently, the biggest news on the wind design front was the approval of ANSI/SPRI/FM 4435/ES-1, “Wind Design Standard for Edge Systems Used with Low-slope Roofing Systems.” Let’s call it “4435/ES-1” for short. SPRI knew recent post-hurricane investigations by the Roofing Industry Committee on Weather Issues (RICOWI) and investigations of losses by FM Global consistently showed that, in many cases, damage to a low-slope roof system during high-wind events begins when the edge of the assembly becomes disengaged from the building. Once this occurs, the components of the roof system (membrane, insulation, etc.) are exposed. Damage then propagates across the entire roof system by peeling of the roof membrane, insulation, or a combination of the two.

Recognizing that edge metal is a leading cause of roof failures, SPRI has redoubled its efforts to create a series of new and revised documents for ANSI approval. As has always been the case, ANSI endorsement is a critical step toward the ultimate goal of getting these design criteria included in the IBC.

A Systems Approach to Enhancing Roof Edge Design

Roofing professionals understand that successful roof design requires the proper integration of a wide variety of roofing materials and components. For years, leading roofing manufacturers have taken a “systems” approach to their product lines. Recently, SPRI has zeroed in on the roof edge. Low-slope, metal perimeter edge details include fascia, coping and gutters, are critical systems that can strongly impact the long-term performance of single-ply roofs.

As part of the ES-1 testing protocol, RE-3 tests upward and outward simultaneous pull of a horizontal and vertical flanges of a parapet coping cap. Photo: OMG Edge Systems

SPRI first addressed roof gutters in 2010 with the development of ANSI/SPRI GD-1. The testing component of this document was recently separated out to create a test standard and a design standard. The test standard, GT-1, “Test Standard for Gutter Systems,” which was approved as an American National Standard on May 25, 2016.

Similarly, SPRI has revised 4435/ES-1 to only be a test standard.

Making both edge standards (4435/ES-1 and GT-1) into standalone testing documents makes it easier for designers, contractors and building code officials to reference the testing requirements needed for metal roof edge systems.

IBC requires that perimeter edge metal fascia and coping (excluding gutters), be tested per the three test methods, referred to as RE-1, RE-2 and RE-3 in the ES-1 standard. The design elements of ES-1 were never referenced in code, which caused some confusion as to how ES-1 was to be applied. The latest version of 4435/ES-1 (2017) only includes the tests referenced in code to eliminate that confusion.

Test methods in 4435/ES-1 2017 have the same names (RE-1, RE-2, and RE-3), and use the same test method as 4435/ES-1 2011. Because there are no changes to the test methods, any edge system tested to the 2011 version would not need to be retested using the 2017 version.

FM Global’s input was instrumental in the changes in 2011 when ANSI/SPRI ES-1 incorporated components of FM 4435 to become 4435/ES-1. However, there are no additional FM related changes in the latest 4435/ES-1 standard.

This gravel stop is being tested according to the ANSI/SPRI ES-1 standard using the RE-2 test for fascia systems. Photo: OMG Edge Systems

Per ANSI requirements, 4435/ES-1 2011 needed to be re-balloted, which is required by ANSI every five years. SPRI took this opportunity to have it approved as a test standard only to eliminate the confusion referenced above. FM Global was consulted and indicated it wanted to keep “FM” in the title. (FM was on the canvas list for the test standard and actually uses it as its own test standard.)

With 4435/ES-1 becoming a test standard for coping and fascia only, and GT-1 being a test standard for gutters, SPRI determined that a separate edge design standard was needed. Meet ED-1, a design standard for metal perimeter edge systems.

The design portions of the ES-1 edge and the GD-1 gutter standards have been combined and are now referenced by SPRI as ED-1. It has been developed and is currently being canvassed as an ANSI standard that will provide guidance for designing all perimeter edge metal including fascia, coping, and gutters.

ED-1 will be canvassed per the ANSI process later this year. However, SPRI is not planning to submit ED-1 for code approval.

SPRI ED-1 will include:

Material Design

  • Nailer attachment
  • Proper coverage
  • Recommended material thicknesses
  • Galvanic compatibility
  • Thermal movement
  • Testing requirements
  • “Appliance” attachment to edge systems

Limited Wind Design

  • Load to be required by the Authorities Having Jurisdiction (AHJ).
  • Tables similar to those included in 4435/ES-1 will be included for reference.

If this sounds a tad complex, imagine the design work required by the dedicated members of SPRI’s various subcommittees.

The Test Methods in Detail

The GT-1 standard is the newest, so let’s tackle this one first. As noted above, the ANSI/SPRI GT-1 test standard was developed by SPRI and received ANSI Approval in May of 2016. Testing of roof gutters is not currently required by IBC; however, field observations of numerous gutter failures in moderate to high winds, along with investigations by RICOWI following hurricanes have shown that improperly designed or installed gutters frequently fail in high wind events. GT-1 provides a test method that can be used by manufacturers of gutters, including contractors that brake or roll-form gutters, to determine if the gutter will resist wind design loads. Installing gutters tested to resist anticipated wind forces can give contractors peace of mind, and may provide a competitive advantage when presented to the building owner.

This gutter is being tested using the test method specified in ANSI/SPRI GD-1, “Design Standard for Gutter Systems Used with Low-Slope Roofs.” Photo: OMG Edge Systems

GT-1 tests full size and length samples (maximum 12 feet 0 inches) of gutter with brackets, straps, and fasteners installed per the gutter design. It is critical that the gutter be installed with the same brackets, straps, and fasteners, at the same spacing and locations as per the tested design to assure the gutter will perform in the field as tested. The fabricator should also label the gutter and/or provide documentation that the gutter system has been tested per GT-1 to resist the design loads required.

GT-1 consists primarily of three test methods (G-1, G-2, and G-3). Test method G-1 tests the resistance to wind loads acting outwardly on the face of the gutter, and G-2 tests the resistance to wind loads acting upwardly on the bottom of the gutter. G-3 tests resistance to the loads of ice and water acting downwardly on the bottom of the gutter.

Tests G-1 and G-2 are cycled (load, relax, increase load) tests to failure in both the original GD-1 standard and the new GT-1. The only change being that in GD-1 the loads are increased in increments of 10 lbf/ft2 (pound force per square foot) from 0 to failure, and in GT-1 they are increased in increments of 15 lbs/lf (pounds per linear foot) from 0 to 60 lbs/lf, then in 5 lbs/lf increments from above 60 lbs/lf to failure.

Note also that the units changed from lbf/ft2 (pound force per square foot) to lbs/lf (pounds per linear foot), which was done so that the tests could be run using the test apparatus loads without having to convert to pressures.

The GT-1 standard specifies a laboratory method for static testing external gutters. However, testing of gutters with a circular cross-section is not addressed in the standard, nor does the standard address water removal or the water-carrying capability of the gutter. In addition, downspouts and leaders are not included in the scope of the standard.

SPRI intends to submit ANSI/SPRI GT-1 for adoption in the next IBC code cycle.

As referenced above, IBC requires that perimeter edge metal (fascia and coping), excluding gutters, be tested per three test methods, referred to as RE-1, RE-2 and RE-3 in the ES-1 standard.

RE-1 tests the ability of the edge to secure a billowing membrane, and is only required for mechanically attached or ballasted membrane roof systems when there is no peel stop (seam plate or fasteners within 12 inches of the roof edge). RE-2 tests the outward pull for the horizontal face of an edge device. RE-3 tests upward and outward simultaneous pull on the horizontal and vertical sides of a parapet coping cap.

Calculating Roof Edge Design Pressures

All versions of ANSI/SPRI ES-1 and ANSI/SPRI GD-1, the 2011 version of ANSI/SPRI 4435/ES-1, and the new ED-1 standard all provide design information for calculating roof edge design pressures. These design calculations are based on ASCE7 (2005 and earlier), and consider the wind speed, building height, building exposure (terrain), and building use.

A gravel stop failure observed during roof inspections after Hurricane Ike in Sept. 2008. Photo: OMG Edge Systems

However, as stated above, IBC requires that the load calculation be per Chapter 16 of code, so the SPRI design standards are intended only as a reference for designers, fabricators, and installers of metal roof edge systems.

ES-1-tested edge metal is currently available from pre-manufactured suppliers, membrane manufacturers and metal fabricators that have tested their products at an approved laboratory.

The roofing contractor can also shop-fabricate edge metal, as long as the final product is tested by an approved testing service. The National Roofing Contractors Association (NRCA) has performed lab testing and maintains a certification listing for specific edge metal flashings using Intertek Testing Services, N.A. Visit www. nrca.net/rp/technical/details/files/its details.pdf for further details.

A list of shop fabricators that have obtained a sub-listing from NRCA to fabricate the tested edge metal products are also available at www. nrca.net/rp/technical/details/files/its details/authfab.aspx.

SPRI Continues to Take Lead Role in Wind Testing

As far back as 1998, SPRI broke ground with its ANSI/SPRI/ES-1 document addressing design and testing of low-slope perimeter edge metal. Today, the trade association has a variety of design documents at the roofing professional’s disposal, and is working to get ED-1 approved as an Edge Design Standard to be used for low-slope metal perimeter edge components that include fascia, coping and gutters.

All current and previously approved ANSI/SPRI standards can be accessed directly by visiting https://www.spri.org/publications/policy.htm.

For more information about SPRI and its activities, visit www.spri.org or contact the association at info@spri.org.

Safety Gloves Feature Strength-to-weight Ratio up to 15 Times Higher than Steel

Safety Today’s Brass Knuckle SmartShell BKCR4499 gloves.

Safety Today’s Brass Knuckle SmartShell BKCR4499 gloves.

Safety Today’s Brass Knuckle SmartShell BKCR4499 gloves provide high levels of cross-functional protection and a glove construction that utilizes the company’s Fit, Form and Function standard.

The BKCR4499 begins with a machine-knit, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene shell that offers ANSI cut level 4 protection, which has a strength-to-weight ratio that’s eight to 15 times higher than steel. The glove’s layered construction is designed to conform to the natural contours of the hand and includes flex points in the fingers, wrist and palm, helping to ensure maximum comfort and increase compliance. Thermoplastic rubber padding is sonically welded to the back of the glove and offers protection from contusions, smash injuries, punctures and object strikes, with pinch protection extending to each fingertip. The sandy finish of the black nitrile palm coating offers excellent wet grip and slip resistance along with abrasion resistance.

For long-lasting durability, the BKCR4499 is double-stitched in high-wear areas, such as the fingertips, index finger and palm. It offers flexibility and an ergonomic design. The bright lime green shell color meets the requirements of American National Standard (ANSI/ISEA 107-2010) for High-Visibility Safety Apparel and Headwear Devices.

The BKCR4499 is recommended for assembly, agriculture, construction, forestry and logging, heavy equipment, machine operation, manufacturing, oil and gas and other petro-based refining, mining, rigging, and other heavy-duty work environments.

GAF Partners with SLATOR to Make Working on Steep Roofs Safer

GAF announced an alliance with SLATOR, creator of a new safety device helping contractors to make the dangerous business of working on steep roofs safer and more efficient.

Falls are the leading cause of death for construction workers, with 39 percent from roof falls, according to the U.S. Department of Labor. Fall protection is also the most frequently cited OSHA violation, which carries hefty fines. SLATOR helps to avoid these situations by offering an easier, faster and safer way to make roof repairs on asphalt or slate shingle roofs. The sturdy metal bracket bolts to a roof to serve as a secure ladder clamp and harness anchor point.

The red SLATOR Roof Bracket is ANSI certified and OSHA compliant, with the ability to hold up to 5,000 pounds—roughly the weight of a rhino or small truck—from a rooftop. The blue SLATOR-Mini is a smaller ladder clamp without the anchor feature.

“We invented the SLATOR to help us work better, work safer and work faster on steep slate and asphalt shingle roofs,” says SLATOR inventor Ronny Roseveare, a 20-year roofer and remodeler. “We’re very excited about our alliance with GAF and look forward to offering enhanced fall protection to GAF Master Elite, Master Select, Certified and Master Contractors across the country.”

ICC and ASHRAE Outline Roles for Development of International Green Construction Code

In a deal nearly two years in the making, the International Code Council (ICC) and ASHRAE have signed the final agreement that outlines each organization’s role in the development and maintenance of the new version of the International Green Construction Code (IgCC) sponsored by the American Institute of Architects (AIA), ASHRAE, ICC, the Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) and the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC). The code, scheduled to be released in 2018, will be powered by ANSI/ASHRAE/ICC/IES/USGBC Standard 189.1, Standard for the Design of High-Performance, Green Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings developed using the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) approved ASHRAE consensus process. The joint Standing Standards Project Committee 189.1 (SSPC) will serve as the consensus body that will work to ensure the standard is consistent and coordinated with the ICC Family of Codes.

The ICC will be responsible for Chapter 1, Scope and Administration. For the 2018 IgCC, ICC will coordinate the technical provisions developed by ASHRAE with the provisions in Chapter 1 of the 2015 IgCC. As a result, the 2016 Group B Cycle will not include Chapter 1 of the IgCC for code changes. With ASHRAE developing technical provisions, ICC’s 2017 Group C cycle to develop the 2018 IgCC has been cancelled. Part of the development process for the 2018 technical provisions will include the SSPC review of the 2015 IgCC and consideration of content for inclusion in 189.1-2017 along with changes generated by the committee and proposals submitted by stakeholders. Following the completion of the 2018 IgCC, Chapter 1 of the IgCC will be developed by ICC using its consensus code development process.

“Our goal in this partnership all along has been to share resources to increase use of the IgCC and make it simpler for code officials, designers and contractors to build environmentally efficient structures that will lessen energy and water consumption and reduce the carbon footprint,” said ICC Board President Guy Tomberlin, CBO. “We are now situated to do just that. We thank our partners, ICC Members and all who will contribute to the development of the IgCC powered by 189.1.”

The Executive Steering Committee for the effort to align 189.1, the IgCC and LEED consists of representatives of ICC, ASHRAE, USGBC, AIA and IES, and the SSPC Chair.

“The full integration of Standard 189.1 to serve as the technical content of the IgCC will leverage ASHRAE’s technical expertise and increase the standard’s influence on sustainable buildings,” notes ASHRAE President David Underwood. “We look forward to continuing to engage a broad spectrum of stakeholders in development of Standard 189.1 following the ANSI consensus standards development process. The result will be a comprehensive compliance tool that can be used by jurisdictions worldwide that are committed to a more sustainable built environment.”

The new publication also will align the Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) rating system program to ensure a streamlined, effective set of regulatory and above-code options. The green building certification program recognizes best-in-class building strategies and practices. To receive LEED certification, building projects satisfy prerequisites and earn points to achieve different levels of certification

“This joint initiative will forge the fundamental regulatory building blocks of green construction on which future green building leadership initiatives can grow,” says Brendan Owens, chief of engineering at USGBC. “It takes courage to think differently and to commit to a new model, and for that we thank the leadership of the partner organizations behind the IgCC powered by 189.1.”

“Our combined membership, consisting of practicing design professionals, code officials, and the building industry representatives, supports the development of codes and standards that protect the health, safety and welfare of the public at large,” says AIA CEO Robert Ivy, FAIA. “Through this significant agreement, both the AIA and the ICC agree to work more closely to achieve our common goals.”

In 2010, ASHRAE and ICC joined forces by making 189.1 an alternative compliance path for the IgCC. The new agreement between ASHRAE and ICC furthers the effort these organizations initiated in 2010 by providing the market with a single code that is coordinated with the International Family of Codes.

“IES looks forward to continuing to partner with ASHRAE in developing technical content for Standard 189.1,” according to Rita Harrold, IES representative. “And to participating with the other organizations in this unique collaborative opportunity to satisfy the goals for the new version of IgCC.”

The agreement creates a comprehensive framework for jurisdictions looking to implement and adopt green building regulations and codes. The unprecedented collaboration leverages the unique organizational expertise of the partners participating in this evolution of green building codes and brings AIA, ASHRAE, ICC, IES and USGBC into strategic and tactical alignment on the relationship between 189.1 and the IgCC. Other organizations that support this vision and would like to join the effort are invited to contact Dominic Sims or Jeff Littleton.

Ladder Clamp Allows for Safer Access

The SLATOR tool fastens to a steep slate or asphalt shingle roof and firmly clamps a ladder into position.

The SLATOR tool fastens to a steep slate or asphalt shingle roof and firmly clamps a ladder into position.

Falls are the leading cause of injuries and death at the workplace. In fact, according to OSHA, falling accounted for nearly 37 percent of all deaths in 2013 and is listed among constructions “fatal four.” Roofing professionals have always been particularly vulnerable to this danger. The inventors of SLATOR hope to change this. “We look forward to the day when falling off roofs was something that used to happen,” says Ronny Roseveare, co-owner of SLATOR.

A team of three remodelers/roofers from Lynchburg, Va. made a commitment to safety when they began their business in 2013. “In order to do the job right, we have to figure out a way to be safe,” says Roseveare. Between busy days working on houses, they began perfecting their approach to safety. Soon the Secure Ladder And Tie Off Responsibly, or SLATOR, was born.

OSHA compliant and ANSI certified, the thoroughly tested SLATOR tool fastens to a steep slate or asphalt shingle roof and firmly clamps a ladder into position, allowing any tradesman working on a roof easier and safer access to perform their work.

Snips Provide Durability and Longevity

Stanley's FATMAX Snips feature extended-life cutting blades compared to previous FATMAX Snips, providing a new level of durability and longevity.

Stanley’s FATMAX Snips feature extended-life cutting blades compared to previous FATMAX Snips, providing a new level of durability and longevity.

Stanley launches its robust line-up of FATMAX Snips for professional construction markets.

Stanley is offering 19 FATMAX Snips which include aviation, tin and specialty HVAC snips. They feature extended-life cutting blades compared to previous FATMAX Snips, providing a new level of durability and longevity.

Aviation Snips have become popular recently because the linkage on the snips increases the mechanical advantage without increasing the blade length of the snips. Previously known as compound-action snips, they were developed for the aviation industry in the construction of aircraft, but are widely used in many construction trades today.

Research shows that pros want snips with high-longevity and durability of cutting edges for fast and precise cutting. In fact, pros who use snips frequently will buy new ones up to once a month.

To achieve cutting longevity, the FATMAX Snips are manufactured with forged Cr-V steel blades and induction-hardened. They are also rated for 18 gauge cold-rolled steel and 22-gauge stainless steel, which meet ANSI specifications. The FATMAX Bulldog Snip is rated for 16-gauge cold rolled steel or 20-gauge stainless steel, also meeting the ANSI specifications.

The 1/4-inch blade markings offer quick, precise cutting, eliminating the need to measure and mark the cut. Spring-loaded external latches provide quick one-handed operation and allow for quick and easy access in and out of work pouch. FATMAX Offset Snips have offset angled blades to provide clearance between the snip and the material while cutting.

Low-profile hardware includes a slim bolt that helps provide strength, while keeping a low profile for access. Flush-mount hardware also helps prevent catching on materials or opening in the tool pouch versus external hardware as found on others. Slim bi-material grips provide comfort for a full day’s work.

These snips are backed with a limited lifetime warranty. If the product fails during its useful life due to any deficiencies in material and product, they will be replaced. A person must contact customer service or send damaged tool to Stanley Tools, Quality Assurance, 1000 Stanley Drive, Concord, NC 28027.