Case Study Reveals Key Lessons in Roof Design

Photo 1. In order to manufacture materials inside the facility, humidity had to be added to the space in the form of hanging moisture dispensaries. This increased the relative humidity to 90 percent with interior temperatures reaching 90 degrees. Images: Hutchinson Design Group Ltd.

The client said, “The roof leaks in the dead of winter.” Interesting when the exterior ambient temperature is below zero. The client’s firm had purchased the metal building several years earlier and water had come in every winter. A key piece of evidence was that the original building was used for storage. The new entity purchased the building for manufacturing. Not just manufacturing, but manufacturing of medical-grade textiles that require the use of humidity to reduce static electricity. Not just humidity, but 90 percent relative humidity (RH), where visible water is sprayed into the air. (See Photo 1.) Interior temperatures routinely reached 90 degrees. Now, let’s see: 90 degrees with 90 percent RH inside, zero degrees outside, and 6 inches of vinyl face batt insulation compressed at the purlins with aged, open lap seams. Not good. The mission, if I chose to accept it, was to eliminate the leaking on a roof that was watertight.

Proposed Solutions

During my first meeting with the client, I was provided with proposals from roofing contractors and, sad to say, several roof consultants. Proposed solutions ranged from coating the metal, to flute filler and cover board with a mechanically attached thermoplastic membrane, to flute filler, 2 inches of insulation and adhered thermoplastic. None of the proposals identified the interior’s relative humidity and heat as a concern, and thus these issues were not addressed. So, a good part of the morning was spent educating the client as to why none of the proposed solutions would work. Imagine spending big bucks on a roof solution that would have only exacerbated that situation.

Photo 2. Rising humidity passed breaches in the vinyl vapor barrier in the insulation and condensed on the underside of the metal roof panels. The water would then drip down on to the insulation, and eventually the vapor retarder seams would open and water would pour in.

The existing building was a metal building by Kirby (similar to a Butler Building if that helps). The roof was a trapezoidal seam metal roof panel 24 inches wide on a low slope to an offset ridge. The panel runs from ridge to eave were 200 feet to the north and 100 feet to the south. The roof drained to a gutter on the north and lower metal roof on the south. The east and west roof edges were standard metal building rake metal. The walls were vertical metal siding with exposed screws. The roof and metal wall panels were set over vinyl faced insulation draped over purlins. While there was exhausting of the interior air — typically used in the summer — and some provisions for adding exterior air in the winter and summer, there was no overall mechanical control of the interior.

The Key Issue

While a freezer building has extreme energy low trying with every ounce of its being to pull hot humid air in, this structure has extreme energy high trying to “get out.” The warm, humid air is seeking every crack, split in the insulation facer, and open lap seam to move toward equalization. This warm, humid air was making its way to the underside of the metal roof panels, condensing, and running down the underside of the panel until it dropped off.

Figure 1. Typical Roof System Section

After time, the accumulation of the water in the batt insulation created a large belly until the adjacent lap seam broke and large amounts of water came cascading down. Soiled product had to be discarded. With rolls 5 feet wide and a 6 feet diameter, the losses could be substantial. Water on the floor was also a safety issue. Additionally, when this damage occurred the insulation layer now had an opening which sucked in even more interior air; the condensation increased and water dripping to the floor was an even bigger problem. This was occurring in numerous conditions, with the greatest accumulation of water in the insulation near the ridge. (See Photo 2.)

Determining the Solution

Prior to delving into a potential solution, a parti, or overall concept of architectural design, had to be developed. In this case I decided that the metal roof would become the vapor retarder for the new roof. Simple enough. If the metal roof is to become the new vapor retarder, the key was to keep it warm enough so that even if it came in contact with the interior air, it would not result in condensation. We did this by determining the dew point for several insulation scenarios and found that with the batt insulation still in place and 90 percent RH with a temperature of 90 degrees inside, with an exterior design temperature of minus 10 degrees, 6 inches of insulation above the 2.5-inch flute filler was required.

Photo 3. For budget reasons, the liquid flashing seal of the trapezoidal seams was eliminated. As the metal roof had to act as the vapor retarder, a self-adhered membrane was installed first over the trapezoidal seam and fit into the articulated seam with “finger” rollers, and then placed over the center of the panels and fit around the panel striations.

All roof system designs need to be thought of holistically, as the success depends on the sum of all the components working together. So, let’s start with the roof panel and structural system. Designers of metal buildings are notorious for minimizing each and every structural member to lower costs. A structural check found that the existing structure was able to handle the weight of a new roof system. Prior to proceeding, a mechanical fastener pull-out test was performed by Pro-Fastening Systems of Buffalo Grove, Illinois, an Olympic Distributor (need a special or standard anchor, these guys have it). The tests showed that the 22-gauge metal panel was able to engage the buttress thread screw.

To be effective, a vapor retarder needs to be airtight — or for you purists, have extremely low or no permeability at all — and this metal roof had to function as a vapor retarder. The steel roof panel itself is impermeable, but the seams, though mechanically locked, have the potential under interior pressure to allow air to pass through. The seams had to be sealed. The mechanical fasteners penetrating the metal roof panel needed to be sealed as well. The roof transitions at the vertical rake walls, gutter and low roof also needed to be sealed. After looking at the standing seams, it was decided that they could not be assumed to be airtight, so we selected to seal them with a liquid flashing. As the mechanical fasteners would penetrate the panel, a bituminous self-adhering and hopefully self-sealing vapor retarder was placed on the panel. (See Figure 1 and Photo 3.) Transverse laps, removing the ridge cap and infilling the opening were all addressed. The rakes presented unique challenges which took some good thinking on how to seal. Ultimately, it was decided that a combination of removing the rake metal and installing a prefabricated roof curb and membrane vapor retarder would do the trick. (See Figure 2.)

Figure 2. Rake Edge Detail

My initial thought was to begin the thermal layer with a layer of expanded polystyrene (EPS) on the deck designed to fit the trapezoidal seam profile. This left a void at the seams, so the void between the seam and EPS was sealed with spray foam insulation. (See Photo 4.) The insulation was then mechanically fastened. The thickness of the EPS was 3/8 of an inch greater in height than the standing seam to compensate for varying seam heights. Over the EPS, one layer of 2.6-inch fiberglass-coated faced, 25 psi polyisocyanurate insulation was designed to be mechanically fastened to the roof panel. The top layer of insulation was a 2.6-inch fiberglass-coated faced, 25 psi polyisocyanurate insulation, which was designed to be set in full spatter cover flexible polyurethane foam adhesive. A cover board with the receiver facer to which the membrane would be attached was designed to be set in a full coverage of splatter applied polyurethane insulation. (See Photo 5.)

Photo 4. The EPS was cut to fit the panel profile. The joint at the seam was sealed with spray foam insulation.

As the installation was to take place in late fall and during the winter, adhesive use was determined to be challenging if not impossible, so the roof cover selected was a 90-mil Carlisle FleeceBACK black EPDM. The fleece on the membrane would engage with a unique hook and loop facer and reduced by 95 percent the amount of adhesive required. (See Photo 6.) Six-inch seam taped end lap seams with self-adhering cover strips were designed, while the butt seams were also double sealed with 6-inch and 12-inch cover strips.

The rake edge was designed to be sealed at the top of the metal panels and raised with an insulated metal curb. (See Photos 7 and 8.) The wall panels’ reverse batten seams and bowed inward panel were designed to be sealed with a foam closure set in sealant. The architectural sheet metal on the rakes was a four-piece system of fascia and coping. The roof edge gutter was enlarged and reinforced to hold up to solid ice.

Construction

Photo 5. Once the EPS “flute filler” was in place, two layers of 2.6-inch coated fiberglass insulation were mechanically fastened into the standing seam panels. The high-density cover board was then installed in spray foam adhesive.

The project was bid out and AR Commercial of Aurora, Illinois, was selected. Work on the project began in October 2018 and was completed in April 2019. (See Photo 9.) Like any project, various miscellaneous items not anticipated arose, such as extreme cold early in the fall that precipitated the decision to mechanically attach the insulation in lieu of cold adhesive application. I also forgot about the residual water in the existing batt insulation. While we designed for 90 percent RH and temperatures of 90 degrees, we didn’t anticipate the 100 percent RH condition where the soaked batt insulation was located, which resulted in condensation occurring during the deep freeze. You’re never too old to learn something new. The batts were cut open, dried and all is good.

Sometimes you need a good roof over your head to keep you dry, even when it doesn’t rain.

Photo 6. The FleeceBACK 90-mil EPDM sheets were aligned, rolled out, broomed in and rolled.
Photo 7. Following the removal of the existing rake metal, the roof vapor retarder was extended down and over the existing construction and onto the metal roof panel. The contractor came up with an innovative two-piece roof edge curb that allowed for ease of installation.
Photo 8. Following the installation of the interior curb side, which was accomplished with a jig for continuous alignment, the curb was insulated and the exterior cap piece installed.
Photo 9. The finished roof prevented condensation from occurring even when the ambient temperature dropped to minus 28 degrees with wind chills near minus 50 degrees.

About the author: Thomas W. Hutchinson, AIA, FRCI, RRC, CRP, CSI, is a principal of Hutchinson Design Group Ltd. in Barrington, Illinois. For more information, visit www.hutchinsondesigngroup.com.

Metal Tiles Help Modernize Texas Bank’s Building and Brand

The design for the bank’s exterior incorporates metal tiles from Petersen to clad the building’s two entrances. A standing seam metal roof wraps around the building, intersecting with the metal tile. Photo: Tom Coplen, buenavistaphotography.com

When Southside Bank in Texas began a campaign to modernize its brand, management understood that the buildings it occupies play a significant role in branding. The existing flagship branch in Tyler, Texas, was re-imagined and renovated inside and out to reflect the contemporary way the bank now interacts with its customers.

Architect Chad Humphries AIA, RID, project architect and partner, Fitzpatrick Architects in Tyler, Texas, extracted the vision for the renovation from the Southside team and created the bank’s signature design element using metal tiles from Petersen to clad the building’s two entrances. A standing seam metal roof wrapped around the building, and intersected with the metal tile at the entrances.

Humphries specified 10,000 square feet of Petersen’s Snap-Clad roof panels in 22-gauge steel finished in PAC-CLAD Slate Gray color. Also specified was 2,000 square feet of Petersen’s Precision Series TS Tile in .023 aluminum finished in anodized dark bronze. Additionally, 500 square feet of Petersen’s composite rain screen in Classic Bronze finish was installed.

The building was topped with 10,000 square feet of Petersen’s Snap-Clad roof panels in 22-gauge steel. Photo: Tom Coplen, buenavistaphotography.com

“The tiles were the main design element we wanted on the entryways, to function as both wall and roof material, to blur the line between roof and wall,” Humphries says. “Metal tiles have been around in Europe for centuries, and we employed the PAC-CLAD Precision Series TS Tile as a modern option. Metal has a timelessness that is appealing, and in this project it achieved the aesthetic vision and performance needs we established.”

The tile concept on the entryways was such a success on this project that it will be duplicated on many other Southside Bank buildings. Humphries likes the metal tile’s low profile and the way it also adds texture to the wall. “I especially like the way the light interacts on the tile’s surface, which allows for a wall that changes its appearance as the sun progresses across the sky throughout the day,” he says.

When selecting products for any project, Humphries values how long a product has been on the market. “Even though the Precision Series TS Tile hasn’t been around a long time, it was Petersen’s version of a product with proven history and that was good enough for us,” he notes.

Design Challenges

Where the tile on the entryways met the standing seam roof, a junction not often encountered was created. The tile-to-panel junction was easy to deal with because ultimately it was a simple metal-to-metal joint, according to Humphries. “Additionally, the tile allowed for a 45-degree turn without requiring edge band,” he says.

A metal roof was chosen because of metal’s longevity, and the need to blend in to the building’s design, notes Humphries, who typically specifies some kind of metal element on every project. Design challenges included peeling back and sorting through the multiple phases of additions and renovations inside and outside of the building, ultimately to be truer to the original design of the building. “For example, in the 1970s they added a concrete superstructure. But in the 90s, rather than removing it, they built a giant green mansard roof over it. Over time the building’s design became a mixture of ideas with no clear vision in mind. Our job was to simplify and unify everything,” he explains.

Approximately 2,000 square feet of Petersen’s Precision Series TS Tile in .023 aluminum finished in anodized dark bronze were installed. Photo: Tom Coplen, buenavistaphotography.com

This project was the first one for installing contractor Curtis-McKinley Roofing and Sheet Metal in Longview, Texas, on which metal tile was involved, says Anthony McKinley, vice president, estimator and project manager. “The tiles tied into a valley with the existing roof, so we made sure they were cut properly and flanged,” he says. “Installation of the tile and standing seam roof was straightforward for our experienced crew. It was a slower process working with the tiles because we wanted to make sure the lines were straight, level and square. The details were custom so we took a little longer to make sure we measured correctly and got it looking right.”

All metal work on the building was performed by McKinley’s team. “This job was large in scope mainly because of the removal and replacement of the mansard roofing,” McKinley says. “After taking off the roof panels, we removed fake dormers to create a straight, plain look. We tore everything down to the wood deck. Ultimately, we were at least six months on the jobsite. Most of our time was spent removing the existing metal, which required a man lift, which is a slow process.”

“We felt it was important to make sure the owner and architect liked what we were doing by not making design decisions on our own,” McKinley says. “Some jobs you know what to do, but on this one we wanted to make sure the architect liked it. We figured out details to make it work for integrity and water intrusion, but also to give the architect the look he wanted. We figured out the details on our own because those typically aren’t specified.” Edge metal was fabricated by McKinley’s crew. “We love working with PAC-CLAD,” McKinley says. “They have superior products, and the technical help Petersen provides is very valuable.”

TEAM

Architect: Fitzpatrick Architects in Tyler, Texas, https://fitzpatrickarchitects.com

Roofing Contractor: Curtis-McKinley Roofing and Sheet Metal, Longview, Texas, www.curtismckinleyroofing.com

MATERIALS

Roof Panels: Snap-Clad 22-gauge steel finished in PAC-CLAD Slate Gray color, Petersen, www.pac-clad.com

Metal Tiles: Precision Series TS Tile, .023 aluminum finished in anodized dark bronze, Petersen

Award-Winning Re-Roofing Project Showcases Quality Workmanship

Photo: Duro-Last

Replacing the roof on an occupied building with multiple tenants means not only meeting the needs of the building owner but several other businesses as well. When the roof is high above a busy metro area, the job can be even more demanding, but when the failing roof on a CBRE Group high-rise in Cambridge, Massachusetts, needed to be replaced, Commonwealth Building Systems was up to the challenge.

Located near the Longfellow bridge across the Charles River from downtown Boston, the building houses a variety of business and retail tenants. RMX Northeast Inc., the consultant on the project, specified the use of a PVC roofing system from Duro-Last to replace the existing stone-ballasted system and invited local contractors to bid on the project. Commonwealth Building Systems of Rockland, Massachusetts was awarded the job.

Photo: Duro-Last

Commonwealth is a commercial roofing and sheet metal contractor that focuses on the Boston and Cambridge area. Daniel Hulverson, principal at Commonwealth Building Systems, knew the logistics on the project would be a challenge. Due to construction taking place on the Longfellow Bridge at the time of the project, traffic in the area was diverted around the building, and use of a crane was limited to Saturdays. The Commonwealth team commissioned the use of a 300-ton crane on two consecutive weekends to remove the stone ballast, pavers, and existing EPDM membrane from the 180-foot-tall, multi-level roof.

“The ballast removal was probably the hardest part of the project,” Hulverson recalls. “We couldn’t do any work doing the week because of the tenants for one, because of the noise, and the Longfellow Bridge was under construction at the time. It was actually closed, so traffic was pretty much a nightmare.”

R.K. Hydrovac was called in to remove the stone ballast. The crane was used to hoist the vacuum hoses to the roof. “It was quite an undertaking on their end,” Hulverson says. “We got the stone ballast off and got all of the stock up there on two consecutive weekends. Actually, after the first weekend we were able to get started roofing. We stockpiled all of the trash and got most of the trash off on the second weekend. We had a couple more crane days to get trash out at the end, so we had maybe four of five crane setups in all.”

A Custom Solution

The new roofing system was designed to stand up to the area’s high winds. Leaving the existing insulation in place, the Commonwealth crew covered each roof area with 2 additional inches of Duro-Guard ISO II insulation, which was mechanically attached. The upper roof was above a steel deck, and the lower roof covered a concrete deck, so different fasters were used, but the fastening patterns were identical.

After the existing ballasted EPDM system was removed, crews installed a thermoplastic roof system manufactured by Duro-Last. Photo: Duro-Last

After the insulation was in place, the Duro-Last PVC membrane was attached using the Duro-Bond induction welding system. The membrane is delivered custom fabricated to fit the site. “Duro-Last comes out and pre-measures the job with our assistance, and then the sheets are made,” Hulverson says. “They give you a map and tell you where the sheets go. They measure around all of the penetrations, and everything is pre-cut. It’s pretty cool how it comes out. The rolls are listed A, B, C, D, and so on, and you just kick out the rolls and weld them in place. The sheets are pre-welded at any laps, so it reduces the amount of welding you are doing on the job and saves time.”

The Duro-Bond system uses specially coated plates that are screwed down to the deck before the membrane is put in place. The membrane is adhered to the plates using an induction welder.

Work began on the upper level and moved down to the lower level. “We went from side to side, working our way toward where the crane setup was going to be,” Hulverson explains

The upper roof was constructed over a mechanical room, so crews could work any time without fear of disrupting the tenants. Work hours were restricted on the lower level because it covered occupied business space. “We had to switch to very early hours in the morning because of the noise,” Hulverson notes. “We were starting at three in the morning so we didn’t disrupt the tenants.”

Commonwealth’s dedication to quality workmanship on the project earned the company Duro-Last’s Edge-to-Edge & Deck-to-Sky Award. Photo: Duro-Last

Staging areas were moved as the project progressed to limit the possibility of damage to the completed sections of the roof. On the last day, the roof membrane was protected by tarps and plywood as the final loads of debris were removed.

The safety concerns were straightforward. “There was a parapet wall that was above 42 inches high around the whole perimeter of the building, so safety-wise, this job was fairly easy for us,” Hulverson says.

Custom-fabricated curbs and stacks were utilized to help reduce rooftop labor. “All of Duro-Last’s curbs and pipe seals come pre-made, and they are all listed on that diagram,” Hulverson says. “You just unfold them and weld them. The corners are already pre-done. It’s a very nice system.”

Commonwealth’s sheet metal division installed all of the edge metal, which was custom fabricated by EXCEPTIONAL Metals. “Again, Duro-Last measures everything along with our superintendent, and it’s all sent out prefabrication,” Hulverson says. “The pre-assembled wall cap was installed on top of the walls.”

During the last phase of the project, Walkway pads were welded down in high-traffic areas.

Luckily, weather wasn’t a key factor. “There were some challenging windy days, as there always are in Boston, but nothing I can really remember that slowed us down to the point we couldn’t work,” says Hulverson. “The weekend crane setups and the size of the crane were unusual, but other than that it was a pretty smooth job. And the views are beautiful — you’re looking across the Charles River into Boston, so it was pretty nice.”

Commonwealth’s dedication attention to detail on this project earned the company Duro-Last’s 2018 Edge-to-Edge & Deck-to-Sky Award, which was presented in 2019. “Duro-Last was impressed by the neatness of the job, especially the wall flashing,” Hulverson says. “They were impressed with our workmanship. If there were any challenges or changes, we just met them head on and moved forward, like we typically do. The customer is always first.”

Hulverson believes the key to ensuring quality workmanship is dedicated employees, from top to bottom. “Our foremen are well trained, as are our superintendents, and I actually look over the jobs in the field as one of four owners,” he says. “We make sure the quality and craftsmanship are done the right way.”

TEAM

Roof Consultant: RMX Northeast Inc., Milford, Massachusetts, www.rmxne.com

Roofing Contractor: Commonwealth Building Systems, Rockland, Massachusetts, www.commonwealthbuildingsystems.com

MATERIALS

PVC Membrane: Duro-Last, www.duro-last.com

Insulation: Duro-Guard ISO II, Duro-Last

Edge Metal: EXCEPTIONAL Metals, www.exceptionalmetals.com

Restoring Multiple Roof Systems on Historic Structure Is a Labor of Love

The Evans family restored the mill’s main roof as well as the flat roof over a retail space. Crews also re-roofed the large covered porch on the side of the mill and the one-story log cabin residence added to the back of the mill. Photo: Evans Candy

The first thing longtime roofer Dave Fisher will do is correct your pronunciation of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania — it’s traditionally pronounced “Lang-kiss-ter” for anyone wondering. And tradition is important where Fisher’s from.

Founded in 1729, Lancaster County is one of the oldest communities in America. The area is the heart of Pennsylvania Dutch country and has a strong farming and milling history. At the height of the milling industry, the area had more than 300 various types of mills operating.

The list of historical buildings in Lancaster County is long, so working on old structures is nothing new to Fisher, who runs I & D Contracting Ltd. in Lancaster. But re-roofing a 130-year-old mill to protect the interior while preserving its key historic characteristics presents unique challenges. Throw in local attachment to the building and a personal relationship with the owner and the stakes for doing the project right get even higher.

The mill had many names and many owners over its history before the Evans family purchased it in 1983. Photo: Evans Candy

This was the challenge presented to Fisher’s crew in re-roofing the Evans Candy Store in Lancaster County, done in stages over the last several years, with the most recent project being completed in 2018. The candy store is located inside a flour mill that serves as a recognizable piece of Lancaster’s history. The structure was originally built in the 1700s, but dust from grinding flour was a perpetual fire risk, and the mill burned twice over its history. The existing structure has been in place since 1889.

The mill has had many names and many owners over its history, but the Evans family purchased the mill in 1983 and has worked to bring it back to its former glory. Coming from a line of Lancaster milling families themselves, the Evans have used the historic structure to create a destination retail location that keeps people coming back for more — more chocolate, that is — oftentimes long after they have moved out of the area.

The flour mill is an iconic structure in Lancaster County. The existing structure dates back to 1889. Photo: Lancaster Historical Society, Lancaster, Pennsylvania

“I refer to us as a very large mom-and-pop store. We still get most of our business from word of mouth and know many of our customers by name or what they order, but we’ve grown and branched out into grocery stores and specialty shops,” says Steve Evans, second-generation owner of the Evans Candy Store located in the old mill. “Still, about half of the people who order through our website are people who moved out of the area, but still want their Evans chocolate.”

Fisher is no stranger to the area, the old mill or the Evans family either. “I was born and raised in Lancaster County, so I’ve been familiar with this building since I was a kid,” Fisher says. “I’ve been doing work for the Evans family for 20 years now — sisters, brothers, parents. I’ve been glad to get to work on it and be a part of its story.”

Franken-Roof

Affectionately referred to as “Franken-roof” by both Fisher and Evans, the roof on the 10,000-square-foot Evans Candy Store consists of four separate roofs — a three-story, steep-slope roof; a two-story, flat roof over a retail space; a large covered porch attached to the side of the mill; and a long, one-story log cabin residence attached to the back of the mill. Each of these roofs has a different type and color of roofing installed for various reasons, and each presented its own challenges.

At one point, an owner of the mill covered the siding with red asphalt shingles, visible in this photo at the upper right. Photo: Evans Candy

The “Franken-roof” extended to nearly every part of the mill’s exterior as a previous owner nailed red-colored asphalt shingles over all of the building’s original 1889 wood siding in an effort to protect the historic structure.

“I’ve lived in this area my whole life and I’ve never seen anything quite like it,” Evans says of the shingle-covered exterior. “When my family started restoring the mill — I was like 10 or 11 years old — I can’t tell you how many dumb asphalt shingles I picked up. That was my job. My brothers knocked them off the house and I picked them up and put them in the trash.”

Since then, the entire bottom floor of the building has been retrofitted to house to the candy store, while the upper floors have been converted into 3,000 square feet of residential space that a number of Evans family members have called home over the years.

The Steep-Slope Roof

It’s difficult to know for certain, but Fisher thinks the original roof over the main portion of the mill was slate. By the time the Evans bought the mill in 1983, the roof had been replaced with asphalt shingles. Evans hired Fisher and the I & D Contracting crew to re-roof this largest portion of the building — a 2,400-square-foot steep-slope roof — 10 years ago. To protect the historic building, Fisher wanted to start from scratch and make sure the job was done right. When he tore off the old roof, he found no real roof decking, just old barn wood in random sizes fitted together.

To preserve as much of the historical nature of the building, Fisher kept the original board decking, shoring it up where needed, and applied TAMKO Moisture Guard Ice and Rain Underlayment. To help create a more uniform surface for the shingles, Fisher chose a thick felt paper — TAMKO No. 30 Underlayment — to cover the barn wood roof deck and started laying the Heritage Premium asphalt shingles.

The shingle application required some extra care and an attentive ear due to the old barn wood deck. “There were gaps between the old barn wood pieces, so we had to listen to the sound each nail made as it went in — you could hear the difference when the nail hit one of the gaps and didn’t get any wood,” Fisher says. “In those cases, we had to move the nail and try again, because we wanted to know that it was really solid.”

Evans chose the very light-colored Olde English Pewter shingle in an attempt to reduce the heat coming in to the third story. Energy efficiency is always a concern in buildings of this age. When the Evans family purchased the building, it had no drywall or insulation, just open studded walls. Over the years, the family added spray foam insulation, insulation batting and roof vents to help address heat flow in and out of the massive historic building.

Fisher notes his crew took extra care around the 130-year-old brick chimney, which had been re-pointed in the past but needed some additional work. Fisher fabricated aluminum flashing and counter flashing out of coil stock on an aluminum brake to further protect the historic structure from potential damage.

The Flat Roof

Before Evans befriended Fisher and the two started their working relationship, Evans hired another roofer friend, Josh Miller of Miller’s Roofing in Wellsville, Pennsylvania, to update the flat roof portion of the old mill. The existing asphalt roll roofing installed in the early 1980s had reached the end of its life and Evans and Miller worked together to add foam sheeting over top of the existing rolled roofing and finished it by installing a Versico EPDM roofing system in the late 1990s.

The original roof deck over the flat roof portion of the mill was tongue and groove, and the men worked carefully to preserve the integrity of the original decking as they modernized the covering.

The Covered Porch

Fast-forward to 2018, and Evans contacted Fisher to replace and repair the roof over a large covered porch connected to the side of the building. The 450-square-foot cedar shake roof was added in an effort to blend with the rest of the historical structure, but after several decades, the moss-covered shakes succumbed to water damage and began to fail.

Fisher and his crew removed the cedar shakes and found part of the reason for the roof’s failure — zero flashing connecting the shake to the side of the building, just some old caulk. As part of the re-roofing project, Fisher added new flashing where the porch roof connected to the side of the mill.

“We had to get creative — flashing underneath the existing siding to try and prevent the same problems from recurring,” Fisher says.

Evans loved the old cedar shake roof and felt torn when choosing a replacement shingle. He ended up going with Heritage Premium asphalt shingles for their durability and selected the Rustic Slate color to differentiate the covered porch from the rest of the structure.

“It was a toss-up — would I match the new shingles to the other parts of the building?” Evans recalls. “But then I realized, I kind of liked the covered porch being a separate entity unto itself. It had always had a different shade of roofing, signifying a separate area of the building, and I liked that. I chose the Rustic Slate color because it still gave that rustic, historic feel that I loved about the cedar shake.”

The Log Cabin Residence

The other roof Fisher’s crew updated on the old mill in 2018 was on the long, log-cabin residence attached to the side of the three-story structure. Despite looking like an original part of the mill’s construction, the log cabin was added to the building in 1992, as a retirement home for Evans’ aging parents.

The log cabin addition was constructed in 1992. The roof was recently replaced with TAMKO Heritage Premium asphalt shingles in Rustic Cedar to help it blend in with the rest of the historic structure. Photo: Evans Candy

By the time Fisher got a good look at the log cabin roof in 2018, he realized the existing asphalt shingles were at the end of their service life, and one particular section of the roof had been patched multiple times and had additional layers of shingles stacked on the roof in an attempt to repel water.

Fisher took the 1,600-square-foot roof down to the decking, installed ice and water shield, new felt paper and installed TAMKO Heritage Premium asphalt shingles. Evans chose the Rustic Cedar color for the new roof as it was similar to the previous shingle color that added to the rustic, historic look that Evans hoped the log cabin would have in an effort to have it meld with the rest of the 130-year-old mill structure.

“I liked that Rustic Cedar look, pairing it with the log front,” Evans notes. “I think back to olden times with the cedar shake and wanted to emulate that. And I think we accomplished it. It is fun — it makes us smile when people ask us, ‘How old is that log home?’ and we get to tell them it’s only 26 years old.”

Fisher has grown to appreciate what he calls the “hodge-podge” of roof styles and colors on the old mill, and says the most important thing is that the building’s owner got exactly what he wanted and is a happy customer.

“Sometimes if people want to see installed examples of different colors of TAMKO shingles, I just send them to the mill because they can see a variety there,” Fisher says, laughing. “I jokingly asked Steve the other day if he had a shed that we could roof for him … just to see how many different colors we could do.”

About the author: Melissa Dunson is an award-winning journalist with more than a decade of experience writing about a wide variety of business sectors, including the construction industry, and as a technical and creative writer for TAMKO Building Products.

TEAM

Roofing Contractor: I & D Contracting Ltd., Lancaster, Pennsylvania

Roofing Contractor: Miller’s Roofing, Wellsville, Pennsylvania

MATERIALS

Underlayment: No. 30 Asphalt Saturated Organic Felt, TAMKO, www.tamko.com

Waterproofing: Moisture Guard Ice and Rain Underlayment, TAMKO

Asphalt Shingles: TAMKO Heritage Premium Laminated Asphalt Shingles in Olde English Pewter, Rustic Slate and Rustic Cedar

Low-Slope Roof: Versico EPDM Roofing System, www.versico.com